Gastrointestinal system includes digestive tract (mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, colon, rectum, and anus) and digestive glands (salivary glands, stomach and intestines glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Disease in any of these organs will lead to dysfunction of the digestive system. Surgery is recommended depending on the disease severity for symptoms treatment.
A new technique in gastrointestinal surgery is laparoscopy which is also called key hole surgery or minimally invasive surgery. Unlike an open surgery, laparoscopic surgery requires only small incisions. It is done through the incisions 0.5-1.5 cm. Thus, its benefits are bleeding reduction, reduce the duration of hospital stay, faster recovery, less pain and preserve the beauty of the skin.
Minimally invasive surgery of the chest is called thoracoscopy. Sympathectomy as the most effective way to treat hyperhidrosis, thymectomy for myasthenia gravis treatment, surgery of esophagus cancer and achalasia can be done using advanced thoracoscopy. The patient benefits are blood loss reduction, reduce the duration of hospital stay, reduce recovery time, less pain, and infection reduction.
General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty focuses on the abdominal organs which include the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons also involve with the diseases of the skin, breast, and hernias. They mainly deal with the trunk.
Obesity means having too much body fat. A person is considered obese when his or her weight is 20% or more above normal weight. Obesity is more than a cosmetic concern. In fact, obesity increases the risk of conditions like diabetes, heart and liver disease, high blood pressure, some cancers etc.
Intraluminal Surgery and Flexible Endoscopy
Interventional endoscopy includes a range of endoscopic procedures that are used in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases which normally cannot be done by conventional endoscopes. Intraluminal surgeries are a branch of endoscopic surgeries that are performed inside the intestine (without opening the abdomen).