Obesity Surgery

Obesity disease

Obesity, known as a disease in modern societies, is increasing due to improper nutrition and sedentary lifestyle. Severe obesity is a serious peril for human health in the whole world. A person is classified as severely obese when their Body Mass (BMI) is greater than 40, or they are more than 100 pounds (45.5 kg) over their ideal body weight. In US, over 60 million people suffer from this disease. Also in Iran, the number of obese people (including adults and children) is rising. Drug therapies for reducing appetite and food diets had not acceptable results in long-term since not only the dropped weight returns to the previous level but also in most cases this would result in weight gain compared to the previous weight.

Severe Obesity Causes

Severe obesity is a complex issue and has many causes. It is a serious disease that needs to be prevented and treated. Like obesity, the causes of severe obesity are widespread, but target three main contributors: behavior, environment and genetics.
  • Behavior In today’s fast-paced environment, it is easy to adopt unhealthy behaviors. Behavior, in the case of obesity, relates to food choices, amount of physical activity you get and the effort to maintain your health. Americans are consuming more calories on average than in past decades. The increase in calories has also decreased the nutrients consumed that are needed for a healthy diet. This behavioral problem also relates to the increase in portion sizes at home and when dining out. While Americans are consuming more calories, they are not expending them with enough physical activity. Physical activity is an important element in modifying and shaping behaviors. The influence of television, computers and other technologies discourage physical activity and add to the problem of obesity in our society.
  • Environment Environment plays a key role in shaping an individual’s habits and lifestyle. There are many environmental influences that can impact your health decisions. Today’s society has developed a more sedentary lifestyle. Walking has been replaced by driving cars, physical activity has been replaced by technology and nutrition has been overcome by convenience foods.
  • Genetics Science shows that genetics play a role in obesity. Genes can cause certain disorders which result in obesity. However, not all individuals who are predisposed to obesity become obese. Research is currently underway to determine which genes contribute most to obesity.

How severe obesity is measured

Like, obesity, severe obesity is most commonly calculated using BMI. BMI is a measurement used to indicate obesity and severe obesity in adults. BMI is calculated by dividing a person’s weight in kilograms by his or her height in meters squared. An adult with a BMI of 40 or greater is considered obese. Additionally, an individual is considered severely obese with a BMI of 35 or greater, with an existing co-severity. Once you find your measurement, you will want to find your weight classification that is accompanied on the BMI chart or calculator. Knowing your BMI is a good starting point in addressing your weight. If you find you are in an unhealthy range, you will want to talk with your doctor to address this issue. There is not a separate BMI chart used for men and women. Both sexes use the same chart to measure obesity. In addition, the same classifications of obesity apply to both men and women.

Risks Associated with Severe Obesity

Many obesity-related conditions accompany severe obesity. Once an individual is considered severely obese, these conditions become serious health risks. These obesity-related conditions also negatively impact the quality of life for individuals and their family members affected by severe obesity. The most common severe obesity-related diseases include:

  • High Blood Pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • Diabetes
  • Heart disease
  • Stroke
  • Gallbladder disease
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Sleep apnea and respiratory problems
  • Some cancers (endometrial, breast, and colon)

Types of obesity surgeries

All types of obesity surgery work in one of 3 ways:
  1. Restrictive surgeries shrink the size of the stomach which reduces the amount of food it can hold. This makes you feel full when eating much sooner than you did before surgery. Primarily restrictive procedures include: • Vertical Banded Gastroplasty (VBG) • Adjustable Gastric Banding (AGB) • Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG) • Transoral Gastric Volume Reduction
  2. Malabsorptive surgeries rearrange and/or remove part your digestive system which then limits the amount of calories and nutrients that your body can absorb. Treatmens with a large malabsorbtive component result in the most weight lossbut tend to have higher complication rates.
  3. Combination – When surgery combines both restrictive and malabsorptive techniques, it is know as a “combination” procedure. Most types of bariatric surgery carry at least a small element of both components, but the following surgeries achieve a notable portion of weight loss from each… • Gastric bypass (more malabsorption than the restrictive procedures listed above, but works primarily through restriction) • Mini-gastric bypass (also works mainly through restriction) • Duodenal switch (more malabsorption - the sleeve stomach is the restrictive portion and the inestinal bypass (duodenal switch) is the malabsorptive component)